1. The GCC Interconnection has demonstrated significant technical and economic benefits to the GCC Interconnected utilities both in terms of Capacity savings and Energy Exchange opportunities.
2. There are high prospects for interconnection of Arabian and regional grids which can extend towards North Africa and Turkey eventually reaching Europe. A common road map to envisage the various interconnection initiatives is recommended.
3. It has been demonstrated that electricity from renewable energies and exploitation of essential valuable and unlimited renewable energy resources are key factors for the evolution of large modern grid in the region.
4. With the evolution of the power sector, generation planning tools have to be properly modeled to assist utilities’ control centers to address the newly introduced overlapping operational and commercial relations.
5. Development of optimal bidding strategy with risks for Load Serving Entities (LSEs) in the pool-based competitive electricity markets need to be considered.
6. With the interconnection of systems and introduction of multiple control areas, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) with proper allocation of K-Factor to the interconnected power systems play an important role for better frequency as well as power exchange control.
7. Modern Power monitoring applications have become important and in some cases necessary to evaluate system dynamics before, during and after faults.
8. The cyber security of power system control systems (EMS/SCADA) is a critically important issue today and for the future. In this context, several research challenges must be addressed, which include vulnerability assessment, security framework, modeling, and validation.
9. It has been demonstrated that Wide Area Protection (WAP) has great potential as all required technologies are present and available for prototypes and pilot projects to be implemented, tested, updated and eventually put into reliable service.
10. HVDC has proven itself to be an adaptable and reliable technology, able to provide economic and technical benefits to transmission system operators, and provides solutions for long distance and bulk transmission.
11. A fault locator that is based on the characteristics of the traveling waves initiated from the fault on transmission lines was demonstrated. It is recommended to expand research to develop advanced and accurate ground fault location schemes for transmission lines that can result in reduction in maintenance and restoration time.
12. It has been demonstrated that Gas Insulated Switchgear service continuity and the conditions of service availability depend on the circuit configuration where the basic conditions for the availability are defined over the selection of the GIS type in addition to gas compartment concepts and design features. These factors need to be considered while planning gas insulated switchgear schemes.
13. Consideration shall be given to design of Gas Insulated Switchgear transformer bushings to withstand Very Fast Transients (VFT’s) as the increased cost is minimal. Bushing flanges are to be grounded through the transformer tank.
14. Power utilities need to consider the introduction of testing of mineral oil for corrosive Sulphur in their standards, especially in light of the extreme environmental conditions in the GCC.
15. It was demonstrated that presence of a certain concentration of Toluene can be used as an indication whether passivation of the oil prevents the copper against the corrosive reaction or that other measures have to be taken. More research is recommended in this area.
16. Humidity plays a key role in the aging process of power transformers near the oil-temperature. The developments of maintenance-free dehydrating breathers may reduce moisture absorption by the contact of the insulation-oil with the inhaled air, and also contribute to less pollution to the environment. More research in this area is needed.
17. Long term stable operation of Microgrids which include synchronous generators and power electronic inverter connected require more research and investigation.
18. Improvement of power utilities performance needs to undertake a Capability Review that assesses the current capabilities of the organization and identifies the initiatives to fill the gaps through a practical Change Plan with suitably experienced and qualified specialists. International standards such as PAS55 are worth exploring.